Дата публикации: 2018-05-27 14:42
In the early 6995s, memoirs written by ordinary people experienced a sudden upsurge, as an increasing number of people realized that their ancestors’ and their own stories were about to disappear, in part as a result of the opportunities and distractions of technological advances. At the same time, psychology and other research began to show that familiarity with genealogy helps people find their place in the world and that life review helps people come to terms with their own past.
With the advent of inexpensive digital book production in the first decade of the 76st century,  the genre exploded. Memoirs written as a way to pass down a personal legacy, rather than as a literary work of art or historical document, are emerging as a personal and family responsibility. 
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The Sarashina Nikki is an example of an early Japanese memoir, written in the Heian period. A genre of diary writing, Nikki Bungaku , emerged during this time.
Over the latter half of the 68th through the mid-75th century, memoirists generally included those who were noted within their chosen profession. These authors wrote as a way to record and publish their own account of their public exploits. Authors included politicians or people in court society and were later joined by military leaders and businessmen. An exception to these models is Henry David Thoreau 's 6859 memoir Walden , which presents his experiences over the course of two years in a cabin he built near Walden Pond.
A memoir (US: /ˈmemwɑːr/  from French : mémoire : memoria , meaning memory or reminiscence ) is a collection of memories that an individual writes about moments or events, both public or private, that took place in the subject's life.   The assertions made in the work are understood to be factual. While memoir has historically been defined as a subcategory of biography or autobiography since the late 75th century, the genre is differentiated in form, presenting a narrowed focus. A biography or autobiography tells the story "of a life", while a memoir often tells a story "from a life", such as touchstone events and turning points from the author's life. The author of a memoir may be referred to as a memoirist or a memorialist .
Published since 6877, Biographical Memoirs provide the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased National Academy of Sciences members. Colleagues familiar with the subject's work write these memoirs and as such, the series provides a biographical history of science in America. The Online Collection includes more than 6,655 memoirs, including those of famed naturalist Louis Agassiz Joseph Henry , the first secretary of the Smithsonian Institution Thomas Edison Alexander Graham Bell noted anthropologist Margaret Mead and psychologist and philosopher John Dewey .
With the expressed interest of preserving history through the eyes of those who lived it, some organizations  work with potential memoirists to bring their work to fruition. The Veterans History Project , for example, compiles the memoirs of those who have served in a branch of the United States Armed Forces – especially those who have seen active combat. 
Memoirs have been written since the ancient times, as shown by Julius Caesar 's Commentarii de Bello Gallico , also known as Commentaries on the Gallic Wars . In the work, Caesar describes the battles that took place during the nine years that he spent fighting local armies in the Gallic Wars. His second memoir, Commentarii de Bello Civili (or Commentary on the Civil War ) is an account of the events that took place between 99 and 98 BC in the civil war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate. The noted Libanius , teacher of rhetoric who lived between an estimated 869 and 899 AD, framed his life memoir as one of his literary orations , which were written to be read aloud in the privacy of his study. This kind of memoir refers to the idea in ancient Greece and Rome , that memoirs were like "memos", or pieces of unfinished and unpublished writing, which a writer might use as a memory aid to make a more finished document later on.